13 Oct Versailles Peace Agreement
Barnett also argues that, from a strategic point of view, according to the treaty, Germany was in fact in a position superior to 1914. Germany`s eastern borders were opposed to Russia and Austria, both of which had compensated for German power in the past. Barnett argues that its post-war eastern borders were safer because after the war, the former Austrian Empire collapsed into smaller, weaker states, Russia was rocked by revolution and civil war, and newly restored Poland was not even up to par with a defeated Germany. In the West, Germany was only compensated by France and Belgium, both smaller demographically and economically less dynamic than Germany. Barnett concludes by saying that instead of weakening Germany, the treaty has «greatly strengthened» German power.  Britain and France should (according to Barnett) have «permanently divided and weakened» Germany by cancelling Bismarck`s work and dividing Germany into smaller, weaker states, so that it could never again have disturbed the peace of Europe.  By not doing this, as Britain had not solved the problem of German power and by not restoring the balance of Europe, «it had missed its main objective of participating in the First World War.»  On April 29, the German delegation, led by Foreign Minister Ulrich Graf von Brockdorff-Rantzau, arrived in Versailles. On May 7, faced with conditions dictated by the victors, Clemenceau, Wilson and Lloyd George of Brockdorff-Rantzau replied: «We know all the force of hatred we are facing. They ask us to confess that we were the only culprits of the war; Such a confession in my mouth would be a lie.  Since Germany was not allowed to participate in the negotiations, the federal government protested what it saw as an unfair claim and a «violation of honor» and withdrew shortly thereafter from the framework of the peace conference. Although high-ranking statesmen stopped working personally at the conference in June 1919, the formal peace process did not end until July 1923, when the Treaty of Lausanne was signed by France, Britain, Italy, Japan, Greece and Romania with the new Republic of Turkey.
Lausanne was a renegotiation provoked by the failure of the unilateral Treaty of Sèvres, signed in August 1920, but immediately rejected by the Turkish armed forces loyal to war hero Mustafa Kemal. . . .